Communist materialism insists that spirit is the product of matter,
because man, who has spirit, came into being as the result of the development of
the material universe over several billion years. But this assertion cannot tell
what existed before the universe, nor has it any ground on which to reject the
counter-hypothes is that the cause of the universe is spirit.
They maintain that spirit is the product of matter because mental
disorder results from damaged brain cells. But in the case of a radio, it is
clear that the voice of an announcer is not created inside the apparatus, but
that it comes from outside of the radio. The function of a radio is nothing but
the transforming of the electrodynamic wave into sound. But, if the apparatus
should be out of order, then the disorder of sound comes about. Likewise, it can
be asserted that man's spirit is not created in the brain but rather manifests
itself through the brain. Materialism cannot refute this.
They say that spirit is the "product" of matter and at other times, the
"function" of matter. It spirit is the product of matter, then spirit is
separable from the brain once it is produced, just as an animal's offspring is a
product of their mother. If so, spirit must be essentially the same thing as a
On the other hand, if spirit is the function of a brain, then the function
must be unable to react upon its mother body (the brain). But in reality, spirit
gives stimuli to its mother body, the brain, and makes the physical body act.
Therefore, we must conclude that spirit is neither the product nor the
function of matter, but a phenomenon of consciousness resulting from the
give-and-take action between mind and brain cells. Only based upon this
proposition, can we explain these facts without contradiction.
Lenin maintained that, since matter is independent of man's spirit and is
an objective substance, in philosophy matter should be dealt with by
philosophical concept, not by the physical concept which requires seeking for
the cause of matter physically.
It is an unreasonable assertion that the physical concept cannot be the
philosophical concept, because the attitude of seeking the cause of matter
physically is the study of ontology (the philosophical explanation of the nature
of existence), which deals with the natural substances.
According to today's physics, the concept of matter is different from
that held by Marx and Lenin. Physics has come to regard a wave of energy which
has no mass as the ultimate cause of matter. According to the modern concept of
matter, matter is no different from spirit, in the sense that the ultimate cause
of matter is invisible substance which has no mass.
If it should be proven in the future that a wave of energy has a
purposeful nature, a scientist will have to conclude that matter and spirit are
the two aspects of one substance which exists in the world of cause.
The Communist way of applying the concepts of matter and social phenomena.
Communist materialism applies the concept of matter and spirit to
production relations and ideological forms in society respectively. And they
maintain that, as spirit is the product of matter, so ideological forms (the
superstructure) are the product of production relations. But it is evident that
this assertion is wrong because of the historical facts (for example,
ideological forms such as religions, art, and parts of laws from the ancient
ages still remain, even though production relations have changed completely).
The concepts of matter and spirit should be applied to economic goods in
society and man's consciousness (will) respectively. Both production relations
and productive forces include the two parts of economic goods and man's will. We
should regard the relationship between economic goods and man's will as that
between object and subject, which have give-and-take action with each other
The viewpoint of Communist materialism concerning motility and historicity of
(a) Communist materialism says that movement is the mode of existence of
matter, and that there can be no matter separate from movement. They further
maintain that movement is not given from outside, but results from unity and
struggle of opposing elements in contradiction within matter. But, they
cannot tell why this contradiction is produced within matter; furthermore,
the concept of contradiction was originally used to explain the cause of
development, but also they regard contradiction as the cause of circular
movement and repetitive movement which are not development. This is
unreasonable. In other words, they cannot explain why the same contradiction
causes development at one time and at other times causes repetitive movement
and circular movement.
(b) According to Unification Thought, all individual beings are regarded as
beings which have mutual interaction, that is, they are connected bodies.
Thus, their mode of existence is inevitably circular movement. If they are
living beings, and if they multiply, their mode of existence turns into
developing movement in the shape of a spiral. This happens as the result of
the combination of circular movement and progressive movement, with the aim
of moving toward some definite direction. The cause of movement is
considered as the giveand-take action between subjective elements and
objective elements. In case the subject has life, this action becomes the
developing origin-division-union action and appears as developing movement.
(a) Communist materialism regards all things as the objects of human
practice. Not only mountains, fields, grass, trees, animals and seas but
also the sun, the moon and stars are the objects of human work and research
which are human practice. Practice is connected with all the class struggles
either directly or indirectly, because human history has been the history of
class struggle. Since class struggle has historicity, all practice has
historicity and therefore all things, which are the objects of practice have
historicity. Consequently, Communists assert that in order to be able to
deal with matter correctly, they must be engaged in historical class
(b) But, this is an erroneous view. It is true that matter (all things) is
not only the object of cognition, but also the object of practice (dominion)
and therefore has historicity, but the content of historicity is quite
different. Human history is not the history of class struggle, but the
history of struggle between good and evil. All things have been drawn into
this struggle between good and evil and have been suffering damage and
grief, while ''waiting with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of
God" (Romans 8:19) The historicity of all things is not the historicity
which is connected with class struggle, but the historicity which is
connected with God's providence.